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La carta de los Diez: Intelectuales y disidencia
Escrito por Belkis Cuza Malé    Miércoles, 03 de Diciembre de 2008 14:31    Imprimir E-mail

Se han cumplido ya diez y siete años desde que un pequeño grupo de intelectuales demandara cambios a la tiranía castrista en junio de 1991.
El poeta y periodista Manuel Díaz Martínez, uno de los firmantes de la llamada Declaración de los Intelectuales, comenta en un artículo publicado en 1996 en la Revista Encuentro que: “En la Declaración pedíamos, entre otras cosas, un diálogo cívico, en el que estuvieran representadas todas las tendencias políticas existentes en el país, para hallar una solución cubana a la crisis cubana; la elección de los diputados a la Asamblea Nacional mediante el voto directo y secreto de la ciudadanía; la libertad inmediata de los presos políticos; la supresión de las trabas que impiden a los ciudadanos cubanos salir del país y regresar a él libremente; y la reimplantación de los mercados libres campesinos para estimular la producción agrícola y reducir la escasez de comida”.
Pero Fidel Castro, que en 1971, a raíz del Caso Padilla, calificó a los intelectuales como “hechiceros de la tribu” y otras barbaridades, no estaba entonces, ni nunca, dispuesto a permitir la más leve sugerencia o crítica a su autoridad tiránica. De ahí que, como suele ocurrir en estos casos, la pacífica Declaración de los Intelectuales, fue convertida por la tiranía en manifiesto enemigo orquestado por la CIA. Conocida más tarde en el extranjero como La Carta de los Diez, contó en principio con las firmas de Raúl Rivero, Manuel Díaz Martínez, Fernando Velázquez Medina, María Elena Cruz Varela, Roberto Luque Escalona, Bernardo Marqués-Ravelo, Nancy Estrada, Víctor Serpa, Manuel Granados y José Lorenzo Fuentes, figuras todas de reconocida trayectoria como escritores o periodistas. Luego se les sumaron el germanista Jorge Pomar Montalvo, el actor y cantante Alberto Pujol Parlá, y el cineasta Ricardo Vega Figarola. Menos Serpa (fallecido hace unos años) y Granados (que murió en Francia), todos residen ahora en el exilio.
Tras la Primavera Negra, en marzo del 2003, y la detención de los 75 disidentes, entre los que se encontraba el poeta y periodista Raúl Rivero, quien logró salir de la Isla tras once meses de prisión y una fuerte campaña internacional, la disidencia se ha convertido en un movimiento muy activo, que abarca a muchos sectores del país.  Aunque no han cesado los ataques a éstos ni las amenazas de cárcel. Tampoco han sido liberados el resto de los que guardan prisión desde la Primavera Negra.  Pero sin duda, tanto los escritores y artistas que se aglutinaron a partir de 1990 en el grupo Criterio Alternativo, así como los firmantes de La Carta de los Diez, fueron detonadores de conciencia en este movimiento, que también tiene antecedentes en otros de igual relieve político.
María Elena Cruz Valera, quien tiempo después sufrió en carne propia la represión brutal del régimen, recuerda aquellos primeros tiempos de fundación: “La idea  acerca de la necesidad de redactar un documento donde se plasmaran nuestras principales preocupaciones sobre la situación del país y probar a recoger las firmas de otros intelectuales y artistas, se la debemos a Fernando Velázquez Medina, escritor y crítico, a la sazón miembro del ejecutivo de Criterio Alternativo. A él se le encargó también la redacción de la Carta, que luego fue aprobada por el resto de los miembros de la organización”.
  Por su parte, Díaz Martínez comenta en su artículo cómo se le apareció María Elena en la estación de radio donde trabajaba, trayendo ya la carta firmada por varios de los que la suscribieron.  
“Hacía unas semanas —apunta Marqués Ravelo— me había encontrado a Fernando Velázquez, que fue quien redactó el original, acompañado con María Elena Cruz, en una actividad cultural, en el Palacio del Segundo Cabo, en la Habana Veja. La poetisa intercambió conmigo algunas ideas y — para resumir—, le dije que estaba de acuerdo con ella, que algo tendríamos que hacer”.
Roberto Luque Escalona, novelista y periodista, uno de los fundadores del grupo Criterio Alternativo, rememora aquellos primeros momentos: “Verano de 1990: José Luis Pujol y yo fundamos Criterio Alternativo, al que se sumará poco después María Elena Cruz y luego Fernando Velázquez, que escribía críticas en el Caimán Barbudo. Un año después, en una reunión de CA surge la idea de hacer una carta muy, muy moderada, para dársela a firmar a los de la UNEAC. La idea fue de Vélázquez y a él se le encargó redactar la carta. La firmamos, por Criterio Alternativo, María Elena, Velázquez, Víctor Serpa (periodista radial, en el exilio trabajó en Radio Martí, murió hace cinco o seis años) y yo. Las demandas no tenían importancia (restablecimiento del Mercado Libre Campesino, elección directa de los miembros de la Asamblea nacional y dos tonterías más que no recuerdo) En medio de esas coles, la lechuga: liberación de los presos políticos. Aunque el tono y las demandas no podían ser más moderados, sólo la firmaron 5 de la UNEAC: Raúl Rivero, Manuel Granados, José Lorenzo Fuentes, Manuel Díaz Martínez y Bernardo Marqués; también firmó la esposa de Marqués, Nancy Estrada, de la UPEC”.
María Elena Cruz Varela se refiere también a la fundación de Criterio Alternativo: “En 1989, con Hijas de Eva obtuve el Premio Nacional de Poesía Julián del Casal, de la UNEAC pero, por su contenido crítico, este libro no llegó a ser publicado.  No pertenecía a ningún grupo cultural disidente. De hecho, no podía disentir de un sistema al que nunca sentí pertenecer. Al ganar el Premio Nacional de Poesía me hicieron miembro de facto de la Unión de Escritores, poco después de  la Declaración de Principios que a título personal le escribí a Castro, me expulsaron de la UNEAC en un juicio sumarísimo, presidido por Waldo Leyva Portal, presidente de la Sección de Literatura, con el acompañamiento de los escritores Miguel Mejide y Exilia Saldaña, ya fallecida, y acerca de la cual me interesa agregar que se mostró muy incómoda con la situación, incluso dejó escapar un comentario bastante complicado, dada la gravedad del momento:  “¡Ay! –exclamó- ¡Si en el futuro mi hijo llega a enterarse de que he participado en un juicio stalinista…!”.  “Entré a formar parte de Criterio Alternativo en 1990. Sus fundadores fueron José Luis Pujol y Roberto Luque Escalona. Yo fui el tercer miembro y acto seguido, se incorporó Fernando Velázquez Medina”.
Luque Escalona señala a su vez que “La carta salió de mi casa. (...) se convirtió “de revés en victoria”, como dicen ellos: sólo la firmaron 10, pero la alharaca que formó el gobierno la convirtió en acontecimiento. Tengo la carta que publicó el Consejo Ampliado de la UNEAC acusándonos de agentes enemigos y varios cientos de firmas contra nosotros”.
“Desde aquel momento  —dice Bernardo Marqués-Ravelo, ya no tuvimos paz. Me convertí en el hombre invisible para todos, con unas muy mínimas (y honrosas) excepciones. (...) Me siento orgulloso de haber firmado aquella declaración, porque como dijo Martí, ver un crimen en calma es cometerlo.  Si se lee ahora aquel pliego, pasado el tiempo, uno se da cuenta que, en el orden político, el texto es de una ingenuidad atroz. Pero al menos dejamos constancia que ya no seguíamos aplaudiendo y que habíamos dejado de ser los asentidores que fuimos. Y de alguna —o muchas manera— dejamos constancia de que nos separamos de la estupidez, la ignominia, la corrupción, las tretas, dimes y diretes que Castro ha inscrito en la médula de la nación”.
“En cuanto tuvimos las primeras diez firmas —explica María Elena Cruz Varela—, la carta se entregó  en las dependencias del Comité Central del Partido Comunista de Cuba, en la Plaza de la Revolución, en el apartado donde se recoge la correspondencia dirigida a la persona de Fidel Castro. Allí nos sellaron una copia con el número de registro de entrada. Dos días después, se le entregó otro original a la abogada Harriet Babbitt, quien se ocupó de sacarla de la isla y darla a conocer en el extranjero”.


Belkis Cuza Malé
Miami, Fl.

Actualizado ( Miércoles, 10 de Diciembre de 2008 14:34 )
 

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