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San Anselmo: Fundador de la Escolástica
Escrito por Dr. Orlando Gómez Gil    Lunes, 31 de Octubre de 2011 22:54    Imprimir E-mail

El más importante fundador de la escolástica es el filósofo y teólogo italiano San Anselmo (1033-1109). Antes de comenzar el estudio del famoso filósofo, nos parece oportuno dar algunas ideas sobre conceptos muy importantes para comprender su pensamiento. Comencemos con algunas ideas sobre la Patrística. El cristianismo ha sido uno de los  impactos más extraordinarios que ha experimentado la filosofía, sobre todo en los primeros siglos de nuestra era. Antes de los comienzos de la Edad Media tiene lugar la Patrística, constituida por el pensamiento de los Padres de la Iglesia en los primeros siglos del cristianismo. San Juan, San Pedro y, sobre todo el Apóstol Pablo, a pesar de la profundidad de su pensamiento, no intentan hacer filosofía.

El mundo antiguo termina en el siglo V o con la muerte de San Agustín (430). Viene entonces la Edad Media (siglo V- sigloXV), esa época termina en 1453 con la caída de Constantinopla (el imperio bizantino) en poder de los turcos. Del Siglo V al IX hay estudio, acumulación de datos culturales, pensamiento, pero no filosofía. Esta comienza a tener presencia en el siglo IX. Surge entonces la llamada Escolástica que es una doctrina en que se combinan la filosofía y la teología. Cada una tiene su rumbo propio. La Escolástica expone problemas filosóficos, pero también analiza cuestiones religiosas y teológicas.

San Anselmo nació en Aosta, en el Piamonte y murió en Canterbury a los 76 años de edad. Era un teólogo benedictino, pero se distinguió mucho también en la filosofía. Como pertenecía a la comunidad cristiana, vivió por algunos años en Francia e Inglaterra. Ocupó dos posiciones de suma importancia: primero fue Abad de Bec (en Normandía) donde comenzó en el 1078.

Después fue nombrado en la alta posición de Arzobispo de Canterbury, posición que desempeñó desde 1093 hasta su muerte en 1109.

Aunque el fundador más importante de la Escolástica, el pensador sigue fiel a la tradición patrística con directa influencia de San Agustín y de Platón. Las fuentes de su pensamiento no se alejan de la Patrística y no muestran las influencias que vendrían después para la Escolástica. Las doctrinas de San Agustín están muy presentes en él, como veremos según analicemos su pensamiento. Aparecen ya en sus obras las actitudes que caracterizarán el escolasticismo, constituyendo como una primera síntesis de él. El pensamiento de San Anselmo marca una huella profunda en la filosofía y teología de la edad media. Sus obras no son muy numerosas, como en el caso de los otros filósofos. Por lo general sus trabajos tienen más interés teológico que filosófico. Dejó numerosas cartas, en las que expone muchas de sus doctrinas. Desde el punto de vista filosófico las más importantes son: el Monologion y el Proslogion y De la verdad. También merecen la debida atención Del arbitrio liberal y ¿ Por qué Dios se hizo hombre?.

Después de este breve perfil biográfico y la relación de sus obras más perdurables, vamos a dedicar la última parte de este ensayo a analizar sus doctrinas, teorías e ideas. Si pudiéramos resumir el sentido del ideario de San Anselmo, diríamos que toda su obra teológica y filosófica está firmemente orientada a demostrar, probar, la existencia de Dios y a iluminar la relación entre Dios y el hombre.

Su primera teoría de importancia se refiere a la posible conciliación entre la fe y la razón. Nadie en el siglo XI lo supera en este esfuerzo. En su obra maestra, el Proslogion, afirma que él cree para entender y no a la inversa. Pero el entendimiento no es nada separado de la fe. Debido a la naturaleza íntima de la fe ésta busca la explicación de las cosas. Luego afirma que hay dos tipos de fe: una fe viva activa y fe muerta u ociosa. La fe viva lucha por ver la faz de Dios, anhela que el verdadero Dios se manifieste en la luz, lo real y la verdad. San Anselmo entonces afirma: “Si no creyera, no entendería”. Sin la fe no se puede llegar a la comprensión de Dios. Hay que llegar a la conclusión de que estas ideas del gran filósofo pertenecen a la teología.

Pasemos a considerar su doctrina de la relación entre creencia e inteligencia. Era un gran admirador y seguidor del célebre filósofo San Agustín y toma de él la famosa frase: “Credo e inteligencia”, que debe regir como principio fundamental a toda manifestación filosófica. Dios facilita- afirma el filósofo- que el que tenga la fe, logre la comprensión intelectual. Oigamos lo que  nos dice textualmente: “El cristiano -afirma con convicción- debe avanzar por medio de la fe hacia la inteligencia, no llegar por la inteligencia a la fe, o, si no puede entender, apartarse de la fe. Sino que cuando puede llegar a la inteligencia, se complace; pero cuando no puede, cuando no puede comprender, venera”. Esta afirmación está tomada de su Epístola XLI.

En su teoría sobre la existencia y naturaleza de Dios, San Anselmo intenta la prueba racional de la revelación divina en sus dos obras más conocidas, el Monologin y el proslogion que contienen sus máximas ideas sobre los aspectos de Dios mencionados. En la primera de las obras mencionadas se afilia a la teoría de Platón de la participación de todo lo creado en un arquetipo que la contiene y le sirve de fundamento. Siguiendo a Platón es posible alcanzar la existencia de un Ser Supremo Absoluto tomando como base cualquier objeto. Todas las demás cosas pueden existir si contamos con la existencia de un Dios supremo y absoluto.

Llegamos así a la teoría más importante de San Anselmo, la prueba ontológica, generalmente llamada “el argumento ontológico”. En su libro el Monologion, el  célebre filósofo ofrece varias demostraciones de la existencia de Dios, pero la fundamental es la que expone en el Proslogion que Kant llamó “el argumento ontológico”. Esta prueba ha tenido una resonancia extraordinaria en la historia total de la filosofía. La teoría parte de la idea de que de Dios tiene el pensamiento. Pero este Ser Supremo no puede existir sólo en la inteligencia. Todavía hoy el argumento ontológico es un tema fundamental de la filosofía.

El argumento concluye: si Dios existe en el pensamiento tiene también que tener realidad. San Anselmo llega a la conclusión de que no se puede negar la existencia de Dios. El monje Gaunilo atacó fuertemente esta teoría, pero San Anselmo le replicó con valiosos argumentos a sus objeciones. Gaunilo afirmaba que la realidad de Dios no se puede decidir por ninguna otra realidad, porque en verdad nada puede afirmarse ni negarse de su esencia. San Anselmo llegó a afirmar: “Si tenemos la idea de un ser perfecto y la existencia es condición de la Perfección absoluta, Dios, el Ser perfecto, existe”.

El filósofo sostiene la idea de la imposibilidad de que un ser finito- el hombre- piense en un ser infinito existente, sin la cooperación de éste. Siglos después, descartes se afilia a esta teoría sosteniendo que la idea de Dios en el hombre es efecto de la actual existencia de Dios.

En otra doctrina San Anselmo invoca el famoso Salmo 14 (el 53 es idéntico) que narra: Dijo el necio (el insensato) en su corazón no hay Dios.

San Anselmo expone su famosa prueba de la forma siguiente: el incensato al decir que no hay Dios, entiende lo que dice: si afirmamos que Dios es el ente tal que no puede pensarse mayor, también lo entiende; por tanto, Dios está en su entendimiento; lo que niega es que lo hay en la realidad. El Dios que existe en el entendimiento, tiene que existir también en realidad.

En su tratado De la verdad, San Anselmo afirma: hay verdades exclusivamente porque hay una verdad suprema y absoluta que les sirve de fundamento racional. En su obra ¿Por qué Dios e hizo hombre? El filósofo continúa sus indagaciones sobre los ministerios que rodean estos problemas. En esta obra parece recordar al Evangelio de San Juan cuando en el versículo 1 del Cap. I afirma: “En el principio era el verbo y el verbo era con Dios y el verbo era Dios”. El hombre como ser infinito necesita la ayuda y sostén de Dios.

Las doctrinas y métodos de San Anselmo han logrado fama y gran repercusión. Fueron imitados por muchos filósofos escolásticos de la edad Media. La influencia inmensa de su prueba de la existencia de Dios ha llegado hasta hoy.

 

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