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Filón de Alejandría: conciliación entre el judaísmo y la filosofía griega
Escrito por Dr. Orlando Gómez Gil    Martes, 19 de Julio de 2011 00:49    Imprimir E-mail

Ha ganado reputación de ser el más sobresaliente representante de la titulada filosofía judaica-alejandrina el filósofo Filón de Alejandría (Entre el 13 y el 20 a.C. -50 d.C.), llamado también Filón el Judío. Nació y falleció en Alejandría. Constituye un filósofo judío que se desenvolvió en la diáspora helénica. Sus primeros veinte años los dedicó a prepararse intelectualmente, con gran profundidad, en las ramas de la filosofía, la historia, la cultura y, sobre todo, en la religión. De los filósofos que hemos estudiado, muy poco se le acercan en el conocimiento de la religión. Su gran intento fue tratar de demostrar la complementalidad entre la religión judaica y el pensamiento griego, sobre todo de Platón y los estoicos. Sus ideas ejercieron una gran influencia en los primeros padres de la Iglesia. Al morir gozaba de una fama y prestigio extraordinarios. En el año 40 lo encontramos en Roma como miembro de una misión judía para entrevistarse con el Emperador.

De su gran cantidad y variedad de libros se concluye que su gran interés radicaba en los problemas religiosos. Sus dos estudios más famosos son sus Comentarios al libro Génesis y sus Comentarios al libro de Éxodo (con un estudio profundo sobre Moisés y el pueblo e ideología del judaísmo).

Las Obras completas de Filón de Alejandría constan de 34 volúmenes y fueron publicadas por R. Arnáldez, C. Mondésert y J. Pouillox en 1961.

La traducción española lleva por título Todo hombre bueno es libre (1962).

El tema dominante de la filosofía de Filón es la relación entre Dios y el mundo (o mejor dicho con el alma humana). Le dio suprema importancia a la concepción de Dios, a la que dedica buena parte de sus trabajos. Comienza por considerar a Dios como el  Ser Supremo por lo que hay que considerarlo como el primer Bien. Debido a su naturaleza  a la Divinidad hay que considerarla como origen de la virtud, el prototipo de las leyes y la concepción de las ideas. Aquí se acerca a la unidad y simplicidad de  la filosofía platónica del Bien.

Es imposible llegar a un concepto cabal de Dios porque es un Ser infinito, eterno, único y por tanto de gran complejidad. Por su propia naturaleza Dios se aparta de una concepción personal. Por otro lado, la concepción de Dios no puede entenderse como una negación de la realidad del mundo. Dios y el universo coexisten, según afirma el filósofo.

Los Comentarios del gran pensador están basados, no en interpretaciones literales, sino en análisis alegóricos del Antiguo Testamento (el Génesis, el Éxodo). Para Filón el carácter de Dios es trascendente, Supremo, único, insuperable. El universo- según el filósofo- debe su origen y desarrollo al poder Supremo de la Divinidad.

Estas ideas por su orientación y sentido han dado lugar a múltiples discusiones y polémicas entre afamados comentaristas que mantienen deferentes criterios y opiniones. Un grupo de críticos sostiene que el Dios de Filón es el creador auténtico del Universo y del mundo, que ha sido fundado de la nada. Otros comentaristas interpretan ciertos pasajes filónicos, afirmando que su concepción del mundo es la obra de un Dios que es un demiurgo. Éste está considerado como un obrero, un artesano un arquitecto. Se le considera el nombre de Dios, creador del alma del mundo, en la filosofía de Platón. Para estos críticos, existen ciertos seres que no se han originado de la materia pre-existente, sino en la creación de Dios.

Una de las teorías más trascendente del filósofo alejandrino es su doctrina del Logos. Es posible que el origen de sus meditaciones al respecto estén en el Evangelio de San Juan cuando afirma: “En el principio era el Verbo y el verbo era con Dios y el verbo era Dios (Cap. I vers 1). Pero Filón – sin embargo, trata el tema con gran minuciosidad e ideas propias.
Nuestro filósofo afirma que Logos es el origen del mundo inteligible (que puede ser entendido y comprendido). También lo considera en una operación extraordinaria: en la creación de las ideas. En el mundo casi todo comienza en las ideas y por la acción de la naturaleza o del hombre se convierten en realizaciones. Sigue afirmando el pensador: el Logos es el creador supremo de toda realidad. El Logos divino es el origen del mundo creado por las ideas. El mundo inteligible no conoce otro origen que el Logos, el principio por excelencia de toda realidad.

Para algunos filósofos, sin embargo, el Logos es un concepto inútil, porque, en definitiva, al hablar de él hay que considerar a Dios como el Creador Supremo. Filón – por el contrario- sostiene que el Logos es una unidad completa, pero en él se originan muchas unidades secundarias. Nuestro autor sostiene entonces que el Logos es un intermediario. Es un órgano mediante el cual Dios ha creado el universo, siguiendo como modelo las ideas inteligibles.

Más adelante, el Filón afirma que existen otros tipos de intermediarios, que realizan funciones muy importantes. Entre ellas menciona: la sabiduría divina, explicando que ésta a veces se identifica como el logos. Luego viene el “hombre divino” (llamado así porque fue hecho a “imagen y semejanza de Dios”, como afirma la Biblia). Luego menciona –sin elaborar sobre ellos- al Espíritu del hombre y a los Ángeles. Después el pensador alenadrino llama “potencias” a varios elementos subordinados a los cuatro mencionados anteriormente.

En cuanto a la estructura y organización de la realidad, sus teorías deben mucho a las teorías de varios filósofos neo-platónicos. Las ideas de ambos lados  guardan cierta semejanza, pero no son equiparables. De importancia resultan las doctrinas de Filón sobre las angustias morales y religiosas. Son más concretas y se alejan, por su carácter, de las meras explicaciones metafísicas y cosmológicas.

Siguiendo con sus inquietudes y preocupaciones religiosas, el filósofo pone énfasis en analizar lo relacionado con el culto, las cuestiones de la educación religiosa y moral. Tema de importancia ofrecen sus especulaciones sobre el pecado y las maneras de liberarse de él. No menciona ni elabora ideas sobre este mal.

Una idea muy original del autor se refiere a lo que él llama el Éxtasis. Lo considera como centro de la existencia, que puede lograrse ya en este mundo, que el pensador llama “templo de Dios” El éxtasis, por supuesto, tiene naturaleza sicológica. El éxtasis – afirma el pensador- es el medio ideal para la contemplación del Ser Supremo (Dios).

Abundan las interpretaciones y enfoques sobre las doctrinas filónicas, debido a la gran variedad de sus ideas. La multiplicidad de sus ideas pone en vigor la combinación de varias culturas diferentes (la judaica,greco-latina, romana y otras). Entre las interpretaciones y opiniones más importantes debemos mencionar:

La filosofía de Filón es una expresión del sincretismo cultural (varias culturas y la cultura-religiosa)

Sus ideas se han interpretado como una expresión de la ideología y  religión judaica, que ha tenido que usar la lengua y cultura griegas.

 Otros tratadistas han considerado sus ideas como una manifestación de naturaleza filosófica, no religiosa.

No faltan los que la califican como una manifestación propia de la época en que se conciben sus ideas.

Finalmente, otros tratan de explicarlas como un sólido anhelo de preservar el “espíritu judío”.

 

 

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