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Datos curiosos. La muralla china
Escrito por María C. Rodríguez    Miércoles, 05 de Enero de 2011 16:33    Imprimir E-mail

Cuenta la historia, que allá por el año 221 a.c., el primer emperador Quin Shihuang unió a los reinos combatientes en un solo imperio. Con el fin de defender a su recién creado imperio de los ataques exteriores, unió distintas porciones de la muralla, utilizando para ello mano de obra campesina, y gastando ingentes fortunas en su edificación. Para su realización se utilizaba a esclavos y reclutas como mano de obra, en los primeros relatos de jesuitas que visitaron el lugar, se habla de lo cruel y despiadado del trato a los esclavos. Los historiadores hacen referencia a grabados en los que se describen a grupos de obreros llevando las piedras en los hombros y a carretas de burros arrastrando pesadas cargas.
Se dice que la quinta parte de la población china contribuyó en diferentes épocas en la construcción de la gran muralla y que muchos de los cuerpos de los obreros que murieron, añaden documentos históricos, sirvieron para amortizar el peso de las piedras.
Se ponían torres a unas distancias regulares según la inclinación del terreno, estas tenían unas terrazas para hacerse señales ópticas de una a otra, los pisos se pavimentaron y tenían muy buena circulación, también evitaron las escaleras y pusieron rampas, lo que nos dice que se utilizaba como vía de comunicación.
Quin shihuang pasó a la historia como el primer tirano y dictador de la China, y aún así, hoy día, en China, se le admira casi como a un dios. Fue quien reformó la escritura, instauró nuevas formas de gobierno, quien fijó los sistemas de monedas y creó la primera red de canales para regadíos. Gracias a él, se deben bastantes monumentos y palacios por toda la china , e incluso, para su protección, fue enterrado en la provincia china de xian un soberbio ejército de soldados de terracota.
La gran muralla, que atraviesa montañas y ríos, sigue siendo una de las grandes maravillas del mundo y muchas de las piedras que se emplearon en su construcción miden más de dos metros y sobrepasan la tonelada de peso.
Un grupo de científicos chinos afirma que la gran muralla china, patrimonio cultural de la humanidad y considerada como una de las siete maravillas del mundo, mide exactamente 8.851 kilómetros y 80 centímetros. El muro tiene una altura de siete a ocho metros, llegando a diez en algunos puntos con una anchura de siete metros en la base y seis en la cresta, los pisos eran a base de una mezcla de piedra y un mortero compactados con rodillos hechos con troncos de árbol en cuatro o seis capas.
Allí, hoy, sobre la gran muralla, todo es calma interior, todo es paz, mientras a tu alrededor gira un mundo acelerado; mientras a tu alrededor cientos de turistas peregrinan para admirar esta gran maravilla. Allí, sobre aquel lugar milenario; siglos de cultura; de filosofía, de luchas, de creencias.y  pasarán los siglos, y la gran muralla china permanecerá, majestuosa, sobria, serena, mientras a sus pies, el mundo se le queda pequeño.

María C. Rodríguez

Miami, Fl.

 

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