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Isaac Newton y los cambios de la física moderna
Escrito por Dr. Orlando Gómez-Gil    Miércoles, 22 de Septiembre de 2010 13:35    Imprimir E-mail
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En los siglos XVI y XVII comienza a tomar su rumbo la nueva física. Estos elementos son: La idea moderna de los fenómenos naturales y el método físico de investigación y descubrimiento. Comenzando con Copérnico (1473-1543) y hasta Newton va surgiendo la nueva ciencia física. Varios son los elementos que preparan el camino de la física moderna: la geometría analítica, el cálculo infinitesimal, nuevas investigaciones y descubrimientos, un cuerpo admirable de doctrinas y teorías y el extraordinario libro de Newton: Principios matemáticos de la filosofía natural (Los Principia).

En el siglo XX se produce otra radical transformación de la física con la “Teoría de la relatividad” de Eistein; de Planck, fundador de la mecánica quantista; y de los físicos que han echado los fundamentos de la mecánica ondulatoria (Heisenberg, Dirac, Broglie y otros). Los prodigios de la física nuclear se deben a Oppenheimer, Hahn, Fermi, etc).

Como físico, filósofo, matemático, teólogo, inventor, alquimista alcanzó una estatura universal Isaac Newton (1642-1727), iniciador de la física moderna. Nació el 25 de diciembre de 1642 en Woolsthorpe, Lincoln Shire, Inglaterra. Su padre era un modesto granjero que no sabía leer ni escribir llamado igual que el hijo. Su madre, Hannah Ayscough pertenecía a una familia de sacerdotes y profesionales. La boda de Isaac y Hannah tuvo lugar en abril de 1642.

Newton fue un niño premature, tan débil que todos dudaban de que pudiera sobrevivir. Su padre murió antes de que Isaac cumpliera los tres años. Al cumplir esa edad su mamá se volvió a casar con Barnabas Smith, un clérigo muy rico. Hannah tenía 30 años y su esposo, 63. Smith no quería hacerse cargo del hijastro y en el convenio matrimonial se estipuló que quedaría a cargo de los abuelos maternos. Para un niño de tres años eran momentos de gran confusión y dolor por sentirse huérfano de padre y ahora abandonado por su madre.

Mientras Isaac se criaba en soledad, tímido y extraño, Hannah tuvo tres hijos con Smith. Este murió en agosto de 1653 y la madre pudo regresar a Woolsthorpe con sus tres medios hermanos. Después de terminar la escuela primaria en su pueblo, la madre lo ingresó a la King’s School de Grantham. El niño tuvo que ir a vivir a ese pueblo debido a las distancias. Una amiga lo recordaría años después como “un muchacho sobrio, silencioso y pensativo”. Isaac no encontraba placer en jugar o platicar con los demás chicos. No era conversador, sino más bien extraño, pero todos eran unánimes en reconocer su enorme inteligencia y habilidad. Además de su gran capacidad en las matemáticas, desde adolescente se le notaba su inclinación para los inventos.

Cuando Newton tenía 17 años y había terminado en la King’s School, su madre aprovechó su retiro de la escuela para llevar a cabo sus planes de convertirlo en agricultor en la granja que poseían. Pero otros eran los planes del hijo. Se escondía y era un asiduo lector, hostil y huraño mostrando su oposición a los planes de su madre para él.

Su profesor de matemáticas Henry Stokes y un tío materno convencieron a Hannah que lo mejor era que Newton continuara sus estudios. El 5 de junio de 1661 el joven fue admitido en el famoso Trinity College de la Universidad de Cambridge. Con el tiempo llegaría a ser el alumno más famoso de la institución. Su madre era rica, pero como no tenía interés en que su hijo estudiara, le asignó una pensión anual ridícula, que no le alcanzaba para nada. Pero debido a su gran talento obtuvo una beca del Trinity College. En Cambridge sufrió muchos sinsabores por la propia organización de la institución, su penuria económica y el anticuado plan de estudios. Según uno de sus biógrafos, Isaac dijo una vez: “Platón es mi amigo, Aristóteles es mi amigo, pero mi mejor amiga es la verdad”.

Era tan estudioso que sacaba cantidad de libros de la biblioteca y los devoraba en seguida. Ningún otro estudiante eran tan ávido lector como él. Sus temas favoritos en esta época eran las ciencias, la astronomía y las matemáticas. Por esta época sufrió una honda crisis espiritual y llegó a describir los que él consideraba sus mayores pecados. En cuanto a su carácter era retraído, solitario, sufriente y extraño.

De gran ventaja para él que las que amaba fueron las clases de matemáticas impartidas por el excelente profesor Isaac Barrow. A la conclusión de 1664 Newton dio pruebas de sus adelantos y progresos en ese campo, donde siguió dando muestras de sus conocimientos del teorema del binomio (luego llamado el “binomio de Newton”) y el cálculo. Llega ahora un momento de celebración: en enero de 1665 -a la edad de 23 años-  recibió su título de Bachiller en Artes, con las más altas calificaciones. En agosto de ese año tuvo que regresar a su casa por el cierre de Cambridge debido a una severa epidemia de peste bubónica.

El 25 de mayo de 1667 marca el momento más extraordinario de su vida: él mismo nos cuenta que estando en el patio de su casa observó la caída de una manzana del manzanero la que despertó en él la idea de la ley de la gravedad universal. Quizás por temor, demoró 20 años para publicar su descubrimiento, lo que hizo aconsejado por su amigo Edmund Halley.

Pasados los nefastos efectos de la epidemia, Newton regresó a Cambridge no sin antes despedirse de su mamá con todo cariño. Por recomendaciones de su ex profesor Isaac Barrow fue nombrado profesor del Trinity College, lo que representaba el mayor honor recibido hasta ese momento.

En esta famosa ciudad universitaria, Newton le dio nuevos rumbos a su vida con estudios, investigaciones y descubrimientos en el campo de la óptica. De esta época son varios inventos y hallazgos. Comenzó esta nueva era con el invento de un telescopio que captaba imágenes distantes mediante un espejo cóncavo.

Con la ayuda de ese invento, hizo estudios y observaciones de los colores que lo llevaron a afirmar que los colores no eran parte de los cuerpos, sino de los rayos de luz. También afirmó que la luz blanca no es la primigenia sino resultado del complejo de los rayos de varios colores.

En cuanto a su carrera profesional hay buenas y malas noticias. En 1669 el profesor Barrow se retiró de su cátedra y recomendó a Newton como sucesor en la cátedra de matemáticas. Capacidad le sobraba, pero Newton tuvo problemas por su poca habilidad de expresión. Tenía entonces 26 años.

Por esta época ya sus grandes merecimientos no se podían ignorar. En 1672 la prestigiosa Royal Society de Londres para la promoción del conocimiento natural, lo eligió como uno de sus miembros. Como sabemos esta Sociedad agrupaba a las figuras más destacadas en todas las ramas de la ciencia: medicina, anatomía, geometría, óptica, mecánica, fenómenos naturales y otras. Newton les había enviado un informe sobre el invento del telescopio y al ser elegido miembro les regaló uno verdadero, que llamó poderosamente la atención.

Poco tiempo después Newton realizó algo nuevo en su vida: publicó un ensayo en forma de libro: Nueva teoría de la luz y de los colores, dando a conocer sus descubrimientos sobre el origen y naturaleza de los colores, así como explicando sus métodos de investigación. En marzo de 1678 le ocurrió algo inaudito: hubo un incendio en su oficina y el manuscrito, tan criticado y admirado, se quemó completamente.

Este hecho enrumbó su vida hacia otros derroteros e intereses. Ahora se dedicó con el afán que ponía en sus proyectos, a la teología y la alquimia. Estaba en estos afanes cuando le avisaron que su madre estaba muy enferma. Corrió precipitadamente a su lado y la cuidó con todo amor hasta su fallecimiento. El sentía por su mamá una verdadera adoración. Doña Hannah fue enterrada el 4 de junio de 1679.

Después de ese triste hecho, volvió a sus estudios religiosos, llegando a sostener que la religión original había sido el Culto Vestal, al que se adoraba al llamado Dios de la naturaleza. Mientras tanto, ingresó como profesor en la Universidad de Cambridge, una de las grandes de estos tiempos. Poco después Newton reunió muchos de sus mejores trabajos en su obra maestra titulada Los principios matemáticos de la filosofía natural (Los Principia) en 1687. Este es uno de los libros más importantes de la historia universal y colocó a Newton en la trilogía de los científicos más grandes del mundo.

Dentro del contenido de los Principia estaba la primera edición del cálculo infinitesimal creado por Newton, aunque otros habían trabajado antes en el asunto. Como se sabe, este es uno de los grandes descubrimientos de la ciencia. La obra tuvo tal impacto que le fue presentada al rey Jacobo II y Cambridge lo nombró su representante en una causa ante el rey.

Ningún científico ha ganado en vida la fama, prestigio y reconocimiento de Newton. Entre los grandes honores recibidos están: en 1695 fue nombrado Custodio de la Casa de la Moneda; en 1703 resultó electo presidente de la Royal Society. En 1705 se le honró con el título nobiliario de Sir por la Reina Ana. Otras pruebas de su fama: en el Babson College de Massachussets hay un cuarto dedicado a “Sir Isaac Newton” con memorabilia del insigne científico. Hay una estatua de él de cuerpo entero en el frente de la Universidad de Oxford, Gran Bretaña.

A pesar de gozar siempre de una excelente salud, a comienzos de 1724 le atacó un severo cólico nefrítico. Estuvo varios meses enfermo y entonces se trasladó para Kensington. En marzo de 1727 padeció de otro cálculo en la vejiga. Su terrible agonía terminó con su muerte en la madrugada del 20 de marzo de 1727.

Su funeral y entierro han sido de los más majestuosos que ha visto Londres. Está enterrado en la Abadía de Westminster, lugar de eterno descanso de las figuras más ilustres de Inglaterra.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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