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La filosofía de los valores: Nicolai Hartmann
Escrito por Dr. Orlando Gómez-Gil    Miércoles, 25 de Noviembre de 2009 13:34    Imprimir E-mail

Uno de los problemas más complejos y controvertidos con que se ha tenido que enfrentar la filosofía es la naturaleza y alcance de los valores. La controversia ha llegado a todos los aspectos del tema. Por otro lado, los filósofos han mostrado un lenguaje muy confuso y, por tanto, muy difícil de entender por los no expertos. Como ha sido nuestra costumbre pondremos los conceptos y afirmaciones a la altura del lector no especializado, pero muy interesado en estas cuestiones. Comenzaremos por discutir la naturaleza, concepto y definiciones de los valores, para luego entrar al estudio de uno de los grandes filósofos – Nicolai Hartmann – que se han ocupado del tema. Aquí expresaremos también nuestra oposición a las opiniones y criterios – en nuestra opinión errados- de algunos historiadores y filosófos. Todo lo hacemos con el propósito de orientar al amable lector a una mejor comprensión de asunto de tanta relevancia.

Muy a menudo oímos expresiones como éstas: “El paso del tiempo ha cambiado o modificado mucho nuestros valores” ; “Los jóvenes de hoy no practican muchos de los valores vigentes en nuestra época” ; “Es necesario volver a los valores del pasado” ; “Se han tergiversado o ignorado los valores tradicionales en perjuicio de nuestra vida”.

De aquí nuestro interés en llegar a un concepto, lo más exacto posible, del vocablo valor. El grado de utilidad o aptitud de las cosas es el valor. Cualidad de las cosas que las hace objeto de aprecio y estimación. El valor es el alcance, significación e importancia de una cosa. Cualidad física, intelectual o moral de alguien, persona de gran valor. Calidad de algo digno de interés y estima. Cada una de las supuestas cualidades positivas, consideradas en abstracto: escala de valores de una sociedad.

Seguimos con nuestra propia definición: el valor es una cualidad que tienen algunas cosas, situaciones o acciones que nos obligan a estimarlas y apreciarlas porque nos son útiles, nos ayudan y cooperan a nuestro bienestar. Algunos ejemplos cooperarán a clarificar el concepto: la justicia la igualdad social, la libertad, la belleza, la verdad, la honestidad y otros.

Hay dos teorías famosas sobre los valores: la de Meinong y la de Von Ehrenfels. Para el primero una cosa  es valiosa cuando nos agrada. La definición nos parece absolutamente incompleta y demasiado subjetiva. El segundo afirma que lo más valioso es lo que no existe: la justicia perfecta, el conocimiento completo, la salud perfecta. Ambas teorías caen por su carácter demasiado subjetivo. El concepto de valor está basado en lo objetivo, fundamentado en la existencia real de las cosas y acciones.

Por otro lado, hay algunas informaciones de Julián Marías en su Historia de la filosofía con las que no estamos de acuerdo. El autor afirma que el valor no es una cualidad real, que la igualdad no se percibe insensiblemente y que hay valores positivos y negativos. Nosotros opinamos que los valores tienen existencia real. Los valores son siempre positivos; (lo feo, lo injusto, el odio, la dictadura) nunca son valores, sino negaciones de ellos. El conocido historiador afirma más adelante que “el valor no se percibe con los sentidos, ni tampoco se comprende ; se estima”. ¿Cómo es posible afirmar que la belleza, la libertad, la salud no se perciben?

Los valores pueden clasificarse de distintas formas: 1. Hay valores individuales, regionales, nacionales, universales. 2. En ocasiones un valor tiene todas esas cualidades. 3. Hay valores de épocas y valores permanentes. Lo cierto es que cada tiempo tiene muchos valores que le son propios. 4. Hay valores permanentes y otros transitorios 5. Hay valores existentes y los que surgirán con posterioridad. 6. A menudo un valor que deseamos no existe por un tiempo, pero luego aparece. Un buen ejemplo es el valor de la libertad. No existió por muchos siglos, pero va apareciendo en el siglo XVI.
En nuestra firme convicción que, dada la importancia de los valores, la filosofía debía ocuparse de ellos con más frecuencia y profundidad, pero en forma que los conceptos y afirmaciones puedan ser entendidos por la generalidad de los estudiosos y lectores. Max Scheler y Nicolai Hartmann han sido los dos filósofos más importantes en ocuparse de este tema tan trascendente. Ya nos hemos ocupado de Max Scheler y fue incluído en nuestro libro En compañía de los grandes filosófos (2009). Esta obra se encuentra agotada en estos momentos.

Como ya hemos dicho los filósofos que más se han ocupado del problema de los valores son Max Scheler (1874- 1928) y Nicolai Hartmann (1882- 1950). El notable filósofo nació en Riga, Alemania y después de profundos estudios de filososfía fue profesor de Marburgo en 1922: desde 1925 a 1931 en la Universidad de Colonia; de 1931 A 1944 en Berlín y a partir de 1945 en Gottinga. Hartmann dejó una copiosa obra de la cual daremos los títulos más importantes: La ética del ser en Platón; Fundamentos de una filosofía del conocimiento; El problema del ser espiritual; La filosofía del idealismo alemán; Fundamentos de la ontología; Posibilidad y realidad; La estructura del mundo real; Nuevos caminos de la ontología; Filosofía de la naturaleza y la famosa Etica, que data de 1926.

En sus trabajos iniciales se hallan huellas del neokantismo, una nueva interpretación del idealismo de Kant para terminar afirmando que “la salvación de la filosofía estaba en una vuelta a Kant”. Hartmann se separó bien pronto de esa orientación para abrazarse a la fenomenología por el rumbo de Husserl. Este sistema emplea el método de las descripciones de todos los fenómenos (sicológicos, físicos, filosóficos). Es como una ciencia de los ideales objetivos. También se nota la influencia de Hegel, Scheler, Dilthey, Kant. Pero el filósofo no se deja controlar por ellos y se le nota afanoso por crear su propio sistema. Hartmann mismo ha afirmado que su filosofía es una “filosofía de los problemas” y no “una filosofía de sistemas”.

Hartmann se cuenta entre los pocos filósofos que han tocado casi todos los temas que interesan a la filososfía. Aqui vamos a mencionarlos casi todos pero solamente estudiaremos los más importantes por falta de espacio y tiempo. Esos temas son: teoría del conocimiento; la ontología; filosofía de la naturaleza; teoría de los valores, filosofía del espíritu; estética; lógica; filosofía de las categorías, y otras. En su teoría del conocimiento – también llamada metafísica del conocimiento – emplea el método de la fenomenología, que permite ilustrar la relación sujeto-objeto, que tanta importancia tiene en la vida. Luego se refiere a lo que parece un juego de palabras: la ontología del conocimiento del objeto y la ontología del objeto del conocimiemto.

Lo más importante para los objetivos de este ensayo es su axiología o teoría de los valores, en la que encontramos reminiscencias de Hegel, Dilthey y , sobre todo de Scheler. El filosófo de Riga sostiene que las notas esenciales del ser espiritual – el individuo está formado de espíritu y parte física- son la objetividad y la trascendencia. Este hecho permite (facilita) al espíritu humano captar los valores objetivos. El espíritu humano se comporta como la entrada de la individualidad humana a los valores. En otras palabras: el espíritu humano aprehende los valores y los trasmite al cuerpo humano. Se produce entonces como un enlace entre el individuo humano y los valores objetivos. Hartmann parece concretar su doctrina al desarrollar- en su famoso libro Etica – una original ética de los valores.

La otra sección de suma importancia en la filosofía de Hartmann es la referente a la ontología, que contiene un estudio de todos los aspectos del ser humano. Ha analizado con todo detalle los momentos del ser, -existencia y esenciales maneras del ser – la realidad y la idealidad. Luego examina los modos del ser- la posibilidad y la realidad, la necesidad y la casualidad, ,la imposibilidad y la irrealidad.

Aunque no tan conocido como otros pensadores, Nicolai Hartmann es uno de los filosófos más interesantes por su inmensa sabiduría y el talento con que trata los diversos temas que forman el conjunto de su valiosa obra.

 

 

Actualizado ( Miércoles, 02 de Diciembre de 2009 13:01 )
 

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